Huntington's disease, also called Huntington's chorea, is a hereditary condition that affects the brain, specifically an area called the basal ganglia (located deep in the brain).
The disease follows an autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance, meaning that if one parent has the disease, each child has a 50% chance of inheriting it. Huntington's disease is quite rare, occurring in about 2.7 in 100,000 people worldwide; 5.7 per 100,000 in Europe, North America, and Australia; and 0.4 per 100,000 in Asia. Both males and females are affected equally.
The disease destroys nerve cells (neurons) in parts of the brain resulting in lower levels of chemicals called neurotransmitters that carry signals in the brain. People with this disease experience uncontrolled movements, loss of mental abilities, and changes in personality or behaviour.